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Lucid CoPS: Summary of Research and Supporting Scientific Evidence

Scroll down for full list of research

Lucid CoPS is a suite of computerised tests designed for the assessment of cognitive skills in the age range 4 to 8 years.  The Lucid CoPS suite comprises nine standardised tests of memory (visual and verbal, associative and sequential), phonological awareness, phoneme discrimination and colour discrimination (the latter being a supplementary test).  These tests were selected following a five-year prospective longitudinal research study carried out at the University of Hull, designed to determine the most effective measures that would provide teachers with a method for early identification of dyslexia and other learning problems.

As with all of Lucid’s products, the tests in Lucid CoPS were produced in accordance with the highest international test development standards, including procedures for item creation and refinement, psychometric validation and national standardisation to create robust norms.  In the original research study a total of 27 computerised tests were first created in order to assess a wide variety of cognitive abilities, and these tests were administered to 400 5-year-old children in 24 schools.  The literacy, numeracy and intellectual development of these children was followed up over the next four years, using a variety of standardised psychological measures.  The follow-up data were then used to narrow the range down to the nine tests that were most effective empirical predictors of dyslexia and other learning difficulties.  The results of this research work, which validates the Lucid CoPS suite of tests, were reported in the international peer-reviewed research publication Journal of Research in Reading in 2000.  For further details of this work and the scientific rationale behind it, see Lucid Fact Sheet 43 or Section 1.2 of the Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual.

The standardisation sample for Lucid CoPS comprised 1,107 children aged from 4:0 to 8:11, drawn from 59 schools across the UK, selected to give a nationally representative spread of types of school, levels of achievement and socio-economic advantage/disadvantage.  Student selection procedures conformed to recognised international test development standards to ensure no sample bias.  For further details regarding standardisation see Section 1.4 of the Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual.

Over 30 research publications by academics and educationalists attest to the validity and useful application of Lucid CoPS in the identification of dyslexia not only in UK schools but also in international schools, including some relating to other language versions of CoPS developed around the world (scroll down for a list of research publications).  Among these are research studies carried out by Dr Fiona Simmons of the Department of Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, which have validated the use of CoPS in the early identification children who are likely to experience difficulties in aspects of maths and arithmetic.  These studies were reported in the international peer-reviewed research journals Dyslexia and the European Journal of Cognitive Psychology in 2008.   Among the notable professional reports on Lucid CoPS is one by Allan Cowieson, Quality Improvement Officer with the Additional Support for Learning and Pupil Support Service, Department of Education, North Ayrshire Council, Scotland.  Cowieson concluded that Lucid CoPS is a high cost-effective, easy-to-use system for efficient early identification of dyslexia in schools.   Numerous professional testimonials on the use and value of Lucid CoPS can also be found on the Lucid website.  In addition Lucid's programs were quoted as an example of good practice in the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee Special Educational Needs Report Third Report of Session 2005-2006 Volume 2, Oral and written evidence EV 100, 101, 114 and 115.

Fact Sheet 11 contains a more extensive list of scientific publications that related to the development of the Lucid programs.  


Research Documents for Lucid CoPS

Item Type Details Author Affiliation(s) Format
Test Manual Lucid CoPS Teacher’s Manual. 5th Ed. 2015. See section on how CoPS was developed and standardisation. Lucid Research Lucid Research Ltd Click here for PDF
Fact Sheet Fact Sheet 43 - Research basis for Lucid CoPS. Lucid Research Lucid Research Ltd Click here for PDF
Fact Sheet Fact Sheet 74 - Research summary for Lucid CoPS. Lucid Research Lucid Research Ltd Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international journal Computerised cognitive profiling and the development of reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 23(2), 2000, 158-180 Singleton, C.H., Thomas, K.V. & Horne, J.K. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international journal Advances in early years screening for dyslexia in the UK. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 1998, 57-88. Fawcett, A. J., Singleton, C. H. & Peer, L. Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. British Dyslexia Association. Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international jounrnal Validation of unsupervised computer-based screening for reading disability in Greek elementary grades 3 and 4. Learning Disabilities, 6(1), 2008, 45-69, 2008 Protopapas, A., Skaloumbakas, C. & Bali, P. Institute for Language & Speech Processing, Athens, Greece. Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international jounrnal Computer-based assessment in education. Educational & Child Psychology, 18, 3 2001, 58-74. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international journal Phonological awareness and visual-spatial sketchpad functioning predict early arithmetic attainment: Evidence from a longitudinal study. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20, 2008, 711-722. Simmons, F.R., Singleton, C.H., & Horne, J. K. Department of Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Peer reviewed scientific paper in international journal Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 14, 2008, 77-94. Simmons, F.R. & Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Professional report Implementation of Lucid assessment software in North Ayrshire schools: Approaches to identifying and assessing the needs of learners who struggle to develop the skills associated with literacy – reading and writing. Lucid Research Ltd, 2008. Cowieson, A. Quality Improvement Officer, Additional Support for Learning and Pupil Support Service, Department of Education, North Ayrshire Council, Scotland Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Computerised screening for dyslexia. In C. Singleton (Ed.) Computers and dyslexia: Educational Applications of new technology. Hull: University of Hull, 1994, 172-184. Singleton, C.H. & Thomas, K.V. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Computerised screening for dyslexia. In G. Reid (Ed.) Dimensions of Dyslexia, Vol. 1. Edinburgh: Moray House, 1996. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Department of Education, University of Edinburgh, UK. Document not available
Book Chapter Screening early literacy. In J. Beech and C.H. Singleton (Eds.) The Psychological Assessment of Reading. London: Routledge, pp. 67-101. Singleton, C. H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Department of Psychology, University of Leicester, UK. Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Computer-based assessment of reading. In J. Beech and C.H.Singleton (Eds.) The Psychological Assessment of Reading. London: Routledge, 1997, pp. 257-278. Singleton, C. H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Department of Psychology, University of Leicester, UK. Click here for PDF
Higher Degree Thesis Cognitive assessment of children for whom English is an additional language. M.Sc. thesis, 1998, University of Hull, UK. Fumoto, H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Higher Degree Thesis Using and evaluating CoPS 1 – a computer based cognitive profiling system used in the Assessment of Special Educational Needs (including Dyslexia) in 4- 8 year olds. M.Sc. Thesis, 1999, Dublin City University, Ireland. Lee, P. Department of Education, Dublin City University, Ireland. Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Dyslexia: Cognitive factors and implications for literacy. In G. Reid & J. Wearmouth. Dyslexia and Literacy: Research and Practice. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 115-130 Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Computerised screening and assessment for dyslexia. In A. Cooke & J. O. Adams The Dyslexia Handbook 2007/8, Reading, Berks: British Dyslexia Association, 193-197. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Book Chapter North Ayrshire’s developing approach to identifying and meeting the needs of learners with dyslexia. In N. Brunswick (Ed.) Dyslexia Handbook 2009/10. Reading, Berks.: British Dyslexia Association, 2009, pp. 53-63. Cowieson, A. Quality Improvement Officer, Additional Support for Learning and Pupil Support Service, Department of Education, North Ayrshire Council, Scotland. Department of Psychology, University of Middlesex, UK. Click here for PDF
Book Chapter Using computer-based assessment to identify learning problems. In L. Florian & J. Hegarty. ICT and Special Educational Needs. Open University Press, 2004, 46-63 Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer-based approaches to identifying and supporting children with dyslexia. Dyslexia International Tools and Technologies Conference, EU Parliament, Brussels, Sept. 2006. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international professional conference Understanding children’s learning problems with the help of computerised assessment. International Conference on Neuro-Developmental Delay in Children with Specific Learning Difficulties, University of Edinburgh, Mar. 2005. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference New developments in information technology for dyslexia. International Conference on Dyslexia and the Multilingual Information Society, University of Ioannina, Greece, Apr. 2004 Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international professional conference Using computer-based assessment to identify learning problems in multilingual children. European League for Middle Level Education (ELMLE) Conference, Rome, Italy, Jan. 2003. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Early cognitive markers of dyslexia. 7th International Conference of the British Dyslexia Association, Harrogate, UK, Apr. 2008. Nysaeter, R. and Helland, T. Department of Medical and Biological Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer and Dyslexia: Update on diagnosis and support. International Conference on Dyslexia, San Marino, Sept. 2002. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Early Identification Of Dyslexia Using Computerised Assessment. British Psychological Society Centennial Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, Apr. 2001. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer-based cognitive assessment and the prediction of reading difficulties. British Psychological Society Annual Conference, University of London, Dec. 2000. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer-based cognitive profiling and the development of reading and spelling skills. European Conference on Reading, University of Stavanger, Norway, August 1999. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer-based diagnosis of dyslexia. 48th Annual Conference of the International Dyslexia Association, Minneapolis, USA, Nov. 1997. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer assisted identification of dyslexia. 4th International Conference of the British Dyslexia Association, University of York, Apr. 1997. Thomas, K. V., Singleton, C.H., Leedale, R.C., Horne, J.K. and Plant, R.R. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computerised diagnosis and assessment of dyslexia. 29th Annual Congress of the Polish Psychological Association, University of Gdansk. Poland, Sept. 1996. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international professional conference Computerized assessment for the early years. 1st International Early Intervention Conference, Penang, Malaysia, Nov. 2006. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Paper delivered at international scientific conference Computer-based assessment and diagnosis of dyslexia and learning difficulties. British Psychological Society Annual Conference, University of London, Dec. 1995. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international professional conference Further developments in computerised screening for dyslexia. Swedish Handicap Institute Annual Conference, Stockholm, Sept. 1995. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Paper delivered at international scientific symposium. Computerised screening for dyslexia. International Symposium on Learning Disabilities, Chateau de la Bretesche, Brittany, France, Jul. 1993. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Document not available
Article in profesional journal Understanding children’s learning problems with the help of computerised assessment. Dyslexia Contact, 24(1), 2005, 27. Singleton, C.H Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Academic Review Intervention for Dyslexia. Reading, Berks.: The Dyslexia-SpLD Trust, 2009. Singleton, C.H. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK. Click here for PDF
Government Report. House of Commons Education and Skills Committee Special Educational Needs Report Third Report of Session 2005-2006 Volume 2, Oral and written evidence EV 100, 101, 114 and 115. Lucid's programs were quoted as an example of good practice. Education and Skills Committee House of Commons Click here for report
Fact Sheet Fact Sheet 11 – Scientific publications relating to Lucid’s programs. Lucid Research Lucid Research Ltd Click here for PDF

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