Lucid Recall: Summary of Research and Supporting Scientific Evidence
Lucid Recall is a suite of computerised tests designed for the assessment of working memory skills in the age range 7 to 16 years. The Lucid Recall suite is based on the well-established Baddeley theoretical model and comprises standardised tests of the three core working memory functions: phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and central executive, and the program also calculates scores for composite working memory and processing speed. These tests were selected in order to provide schools with a package of working memory measures that could be used in the assessment of students with possible learning needs and who may require exam access arrangements.
As with all of Lucid’s products, the tests in Lucid Recall were produced in accordance with the highest international test development standards, including procedures for item creation and refinement, psychometric validation and national standardisation to create robust norms. Standardisation was carried involved a total of 1087 students aged 7-16 years selected to give a nationally representative sample. For further details regarding standardisation, see Section 1.3 of the Lucid Recall Administrator’s Manual.
Validity of Lucid Recall was checked in three ways.
1. Analyses were used to examine the relationships between performance on Lucid Recall and children’s attainment in school. Teacher ratings of the National Curriculum (NC) levels of 337 children from the standardization sample, with results confirming statistically significant correlations between scores on Lucid Recall and children’s scholastic attainment.
2. Lucid Recall profiles of children with special educational needs were examined to assess predictive validity of the system. Research has shown that performance on working memory measures can be used to accurately identify children who are likely to require special educational needs (SEN). Two schools that participated in the standardisation identified a total of 37 SEN pupils, whose performance on Lucid Recall was compared to 46 age-matched children from the same schools. The SEN children were found to perform significantly poorer than the comparison group children on visuo-spatial sketchpad and central executive functions.
3. Concurrent validity was explored by examining the relationships between scores on Lucid Recall and scores on the Working Memory Rating Scale. Teacher ratings of behaviours typically associated with a poor working memory were obtained for 51 children aged 7 years of age. These ratings were found to be significantly related to scores on Lucid Recall, indicating that Lucid Recall is a valid assessment of children’s working memory. For further details regarding validity, see Section 1.4 of the Lucid Recall Administrator’s Manual.
Test-retest reliability of Lucid Recall was assessed using a subgroup of 119 students aged 13 years drawn from the standardisation sample. These students were given the three Lucid Recall tests on two occasions separated by an interval of 6 weeks. The results demonstrated good test-retest reliability of all three tests. For further details regarding reliability, see Section 1.5 of the Lucid Recall Administrator’s Manual.
Research on the validity and reliability of Lucid Recall study was published in the international peer reviewed journal Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment in 2014 [Vol 32, pp. 15-26].
In addition Lucid's programs were quoted as an example of good practice in the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee Special Educational Needs Report Third Report of Session 2005-2006 Volume 2, Oral and written evidence EV 100, 101, 114 and 115.
Fact Sheet 11 contains a more extensive list of scientific publications that related to the development of the Lucid programs.